At present there are more puzzling over how some animals and plants spread to other continents and island which can spread only through land connection and not able to spread by air or water.
I have discovered through research that the ancient sea level had been two kilometer lower than today.
due to this two kilo meter ancient low sea level land connection existed between the continents and island through which both the animal and the plant species spread to other continents and islands.
but unfortunately many researchers believed that both the plant and animal species are spread to other continents by joining and separation of continents.
indication for two kilo meter low sea level.
the island of Madagascar is located 420 km away from the main land African continent and the two land masses were separated by two kilo meter deep sea.
many researchers believed that the island of Madagascar separated from the main land African continent and drifting away from the Africa for the past fourteen million years .
but fossils of hippopotamus has been discovered on the island of Madagascar which is evolved twenty million years ago on the continent of Africa .
but the fact is that the hippopotamus can not swim or float.
therefore the presence of fossils of hippo found on the Madagascar island indicate the two km of ancient low sea level and continuous land connection between the Africa and the Madagascar island.
but Norway researchers have discovered dinosaur's fossils from the sea floor which is two kilometer under the sea level when they drilled the sea floor for oil.
this under sea dinosaurs fossils proved that the ancient sea level had been two kilometer lower than today.
similarly Macadamia is a plant species which evolved 50 million years ago.
(during this time many researchers who believe that continents are drifting also believed that the southern continents such as South America ,Africa and the Australia are splitting and drifting away from a broken super continents which they called Gondwana and have no land connection with each other )
but the Australian plant species known as Macadamia have close relation in Africa as well as in South America.
especially the macadamia plant species spreading from seeds, but the macadamia seed is so large and weighing like stones, which is not suitable for spreading by air or sea.therefore the plant can spread only through only continuous land connection.
but the Australian continent had been separated from the Africa as well as the South American continents for the past 50 million years from which the the Macadamia species evolved form a common ancestor from which the African the South American species also evolved.
therefore the question arise, how did they arrive in Australia?
hear the only possibility is extreme low sea level and continuous land connection which enable the spreading of the plant species to South America ,Africa and Australia.
again surprisingly British researchers have discovered wood fragments from volcanic rock from a submarine plateau called as Kerguelen which is submerged two kilometer under the sea surface in the Indian ocean.
the dating of rock revealed that the rocks were formed twenty million years ago.therefore the twenty million year old wood fossils also proved that the ancient sea level had been two kilometer lower before twenty million years.
so far the presence of both animal and plant species which is found on continents and island has been explained by joining and separation of continents and Land distance over sea dispersal.
but the presence of hippopotamus fossils that found on the Madagascar island and the presence of the Macadamia plant on the Australian continent can not be explained by the drifting of continents as well as the long distance over sea dispersal.
therefore the hippopotamus of the island of Madagascar and the Macadamia plant of the Australia reached remote land masses which is now separated by deep sea only through land connection due to the ancient two kilometer of low sea level.