Friday, August 30, 2013

from my first book

The sub continent, India is continuously rising.
In Sarathamangalam, which is near Kallakkudi in Trichy district of Tamilnadu, the fossil of a sea anemone which lived millions of years ago has been found. Apart from this, the fossils of turtle and sea plants have been discovered at the same place which is about 100 kilometers from the sea.
These fossils came up when there were heavy rains and were discovered . This news was reported in The Hindu daily, dated
 06-09-2005. Based on this, it is proved that Trichy and other areas were on  once beneath the sea. Then, why did the sea recede? It is because the sub Continent , India is rising from below sea level upwards above sea level..
              Similarly, in Gujarat near Kutch , the skeletons of whales which lived 43 million years ago have been discovered.

The skeleton of a whale which lived 50 million years ago has been discovered in the caves of Simla which is at the foot of the Himalayas . Apart from this, the fossils of a sea arthropod called Trilobite (three lobed) which lived 500 million years ago under water has been unearthed in a mountainous place called Zankaskar near Kashmir, some 16,400 feet high on the Himalayas

Similarly, on the western part of India also skeletons of whales have been discovered in Pakistan and in the sulaiman mountain ranges. Moreover, on the eastern side of India in Tibet , the skeleton of ichthyosaurus, a huge sea animal which lived 100 million years ago has been discovered at a small village called Dingiri
All these events prove that the sub continent, India was once beneath the sea and has come up above sea level and is still rising.

Sub marine mountains have risen to the surface
The sea moss and the coral reefs which grow in shallow waters where sunlight can reach are found on mountains all over the world.
Sea moss and the coral reefs are found in Canada in North America, Michigan in Central America, including Texas , Guadalupe Mountain which is 3700 feet high in Mexico , Alps Mountain in Europe, Ural Mountain in Russia which is in Asia, in Siberia and Flinders Mountain in Australia . *1
The reason for the sea moss, corals and the limestone produced by the secretions of sea creatures to be found on the mountain is, the mountain and its surrounding areas were once below the sea and have now risen up above sea level.

Moreover there is also a huge desert of salt at the foot of mount Guadalupe and this proves clearly that, this land surface has risen up from under the sea. When this land rose from below, the sea water that stagnated would have evaporated and created the salt desert.
During the recent under water earth quake near Sumatra which resulted in Tsunami and rocked the whole of South Asia , the sea bed near the island rose up to 5 feet high and exposed the coral reefs and sea moss. So, it is understood that, natural calamities like Tsunami, earth quakes and landslides occur only when mountains rise from inside the earth.
The remains of sea animals are all discovered all over the world only on mountains. To be specific, the fossils of a sea (three lobed) arthropod called Trilobite which lived 500 million (one million is equal to ten lakhs) years ago under water has been found on mountain rocks.

*1 Refer to list of references.

The sea organisms which live in shallow waters get buried alive when there is a land slide along with soil and wet mud. Later when this portion of the shore rises up above sea level, these buried creatures after millions of years would have become fossils.
            The continuous process of rising of mountains from below the sea, enables us to find the fossils of the sea organisms in rocks found on mountains. While the mountains continue to rise, the surrounding areas experience land slides and this in turn exposes the fossils of the embedded sea organisms..
The fossils of Trilobite have been found on the mountains of all the seven continents of the world and in more than thirty places on earth. This clearly shows that these mountains and continents have surfaced from below the sea.

To be specific, thousands of fossils of Trilobite are found on the three continents surrounding the Pacific Ocean . *2
The continent of North America is situated on the eastern side of the Pacific Ocean . Burgess quarry which is situated on the Rocky Mountain in British Columbia , there are about 30, 000 fossils of Trilobite are found on the exposed slate. This place is about 500 miles away from the Pacific Ocean and at 8000 feet high above the sea level.
On the western side of the Pacific Ocean, the continent of Asia is situated. In the Jinjiang district of China recently numerous buried fossils of Trilobite have been discovered on the mountain regions. This mountain region is 350 miles away from the sea and 6200 feet above sea level.
On the southern region of the Pacific Ocean, the continent of Australia is located. On the southern side of this continent, Adelaide Harbor is situated. On Ediyacara Mountain which is 650 kilometers on the northern side also fossils of Trilobite have been found. This mountain region is 1900 feet above sea level.

The three places, where the buried fossils of Trilobite were found lie around the Pacific Ocean and are hundreds of miles away and thousands of feet higher than sea level which clearly shows that all these land surfaces have risen from the depth of the Pacific Ocean .

An important feature to be noted is that all the land lies on one side and the Pacific Ocean on the other side. The total area of the Pacific Ocean is 5.9 million square miles. This is more than the area of all the land on the earth put together. Moreover the Pacific Ocean is connected with all the other oceans of the earth. Three fourths of water and one fourth of land is what we see on the earth. Hence, as the land rose gradually, the remains of sea animals are found on the mountains.

The fossils of a sea organism called Trilobite which lived 500 million years ago under water have been unearthed on the mountains all over the earth. This proves that millions of years ago, all these mountains were under the sea and have gradually risen above sea level. At many places on the mountains, sea shells have been found in abundance. Based on this, it can be argued that the seas may have receded from the mountains!

How do fossils formed?
In the case of the fossils of Trilobite found on mountains, there is no reason to state that the seas would have receded from the mountains. It is because, when the land rises suddenly, land slides are caused and the sea organisms get buried in the mud and slush and when this rises above sea level, in due course they become fossils. Hence there is no question of sea receding and exposing the remains and fossils. The real reason for the fossils of Trilobite to be found on the mountains is that, the mountains which were under the sea have risen above the sea level.
Moreover, as the fossils of the sea arthropod Trilobite are found on the seven continents of the world, it is proved that all the seven continents were once under the sea and have risen above sea level.

Sedimentary  rocks which formed below the sea are found on mountains
Snake rocks
Basalt is a kind of rock which is found winding among the other rocks on mountains and these are commonly called snake rocks. Continents are formed by lighter granite rocks. The sea bed is made up of basalt which is stronger. This rock does not absorb water.
Recently, in a mountain near the Great Wall of China , basalt which is 2500 millions of years old has been excavated. Such rocks are formed only under water. The molten rock magma, which comes out with great force from the interior of the earth immediately gets cooled by the sea water and hardens to form these snake shaped basalt rocks.
The reason for these rocks which were formed under the sea to be found on the mountains is that, they had risen from under the sea.
Just like the fossils of Trilobite, these basalt rocks are also found on the mountains all around the world. *3 In India , these basalt rocks are found near Delhi on the western side of Aravalli Range which is the oldest mountain range in the world. Basalt is also found on the Naga Mountain in Nagaland and in Andaman islands .
Basalt is also found on mount Troodos which is found in the island of Cyprus . So, as all the land has risen from under the sea, we find that the seas are surrounded and form the central sea land.

On the Alps, in Europe , at about a height of 3800 feet, basalt is found. As it is also found on islands like Papua New Guinea and Japan which surround the Pacific Ocean , it proves that all these islands, mountains and continents have risen from the bottom of the sea

Pillow Rocks
On mount Troodos, which is found in the island of Cyprus , Oman , North America and Australia , looking like piled up jack fruits; rocks in the form of pillows are seen. These pillow rocks are also formed under the sea like basalt rocks.
The molten rock which is emitted by the volcanoes found under water gets suddenly cooled and forms a smooth layer. Similar to cotton being stuffed into pillows, the molten rock which keeps continuously flowing out enters this layer, makes it bulge and forms pillow lava series rocks. These are formed in the shape of a spherical or oval rock with a breadth of about one meter.

Lakes formed by basalt rocks.
 Recently it has been discovered that, in the Indian Ocean, the molten rock material from the core of the earth has gushed out and has formed basalt rock on the ocean bed which may be equal to the area of London . Such formations are called basalt lakes. Deposits of such huge sized basalt are also found on the crust of the earth. Recently, the oldest basalt deposits have been unearthed. Similarly in Thakana Peeta Bhoomi in India , Siberia in Russia , rivers of South Carolina in Columbia at North America and Brazil in North America , deposits of basalt are found. *4
As the basalt which gushes out of the core and forms basalt on the sea bed are also found on the land surface, it is understood that once all these land areas were in the sea bed. This attributes to the fossils and bones of whales and other sea creatures which were found scattered on the different continents of the world.

Earthquake occurs due to the rising of islands and continents
Whales in deserts!
In an Egyptian desert in North Africa , the skeletons of five whales, three types of sea cows, two crocodiles, sea snakes and the teeth of a shark were found. The people of this place call it “Wadi Al Hitan*5 which means ‘The Valley of Whales’. Apart from this, on Mount Atlas in Morocco , which is also situated in the same North Africa , numerous fossils of Trilobites are found.

When ground was dug to lay the foundation for the construction of a building in the city of Urumki in China , at two meter depth rocks were located. On it, black colored small and large fossils of fishes ranging from 6 centimeters to 20 centimeters and looking like painting were found. *6. Though they were black in color, the scales, fins and tail were clearly embedded. When the researchers reveled that these fishes lived in the seas 200 million years ago, the people of the city were awe struck. The reason is that, this city has no connection with the sea. This place is situated 2500 kilometers on the west of Pacific Ocean, 3400 kilometers on the south of Arctic Ocean, 6900 kilometers on the east of Atlantic Ocean and 2200 kilometers on the north of Indian Ocean !

Recently, a 72 feet whale’s skeleton was found in England . *7 In North America, at the coastal areas like Florida , South Carolina and Alabama and in the central region of Maryland Island , the skeletons of whales are unearthed often. In addition to this, in South America, on the western side of Mount Peru , hundreds of whale skeletons are found.
In India , near Kashmir , on the mountain region of Zanskar and in Spiti and Lahul valleys the fossils of Trilobite are found. *8. This place is 16,400 feet above sea level. In a mountain cave at Shimla, the jaw bone of a whale which lived 53 million years ago has been found. * 9. Apart from this, on the Arabian Sea coastal area of Gujarat at the Rann of Kutch , the skeletons of whales which lived 45 million years ago were unearthed. *10.

The fossils of Trilobite which lived 500 million years ago were discovered on very high altitudes on the Himalayas and the bones of a whale which lived 53 million years ago was found at the foot of the Himalayas in Shimla. As the skeletons of whales which lived 45 million years were unearthed at the Rann of Kutch, we understand that, first the Himalayan region would have risen and following which Shimla and Kutch would have risen above sea level.
Moreover, earthquakes are occurring as India is rising from the earth. When the rising rocky plates rub against the rocky plates which are stable and not rising, earth tremors are caused.
Hence, earth tremors are caused in the central regions and not in the peripheral areas.
For example, on 22nd May, in the year 1997, an earthquake occurred in Jabalpur situated in Madhya Pradesh. *11. Earthquake did not occur in the nearby regions. This was due to the rising of that particular area alone. In the same way, the reason for earthquakes to occur frequently in the Rann of Kutch at Gujarat is that, it is frequently rising above the sea level.
The reason for earthquakes occurring in the areas of the Pacific is that, the peripheral areas of the continents of North America, South America and Australia are rising frequently.

Moreover, the edges of continents slant downwards and reach the sea. They also penetrate deep into the earth. In other
words, the land which had risen upwards from the sea in the form of a ramp consists of fossils and bones of many sea animals, sea moss and coral reefs on its crust and mountains and this proves that the land area had risen from the sea bed.

 As the continents surrounding the Pacific Ocean are rising from the sea bed, earthquakes as well as cracks appear on the land. As the molten rock material, magma gushes out of these cracks, volcanoes are formed. These volcanoes joined together to form volcanic islands like Japan and Philippines . This is the reason why these islands have taken a shape similar to that of the border of the continent of Asia . In the same way, the island of New Zealand has been formed similar to the eastern border of Australia
These islands also rise from the sea bed because, though ice is formed from water, it is of lower density and floats on water. Similarly inside the earth, the areas which were formed by the cooling of the molten rock material is of a lower density than the molten rock and rise upwards and when they come above the water level, they form islands. When these islands rise up from the earth, cracks are formed on the ocean floor and Trenches like Mariana and Philippines are formed. 
The borders of the continents Europe and Australia rise steep from the ocean floor. Similarly the rock formations of Normandy which also has a steep rising border at Europe and Beachy Head areas often face slight tremors. It is because these places are rising from the earth.

On the borders of Wedge Island which is close to Australia , the rocks are found .in different layers which is visible outside. The layers of rocks are formed inside the earth and rise upwards forming islands and large land surfaces above sea level.

Diamonds are found in all continents. Diamonds are formed 200 kilometers deep inside the earth. *12. But the carrot shaped volcanic tubes called “Kimberlitic” which bring these diamonds above the surface of the earth are only two kilometers deep. When
The rocky plates formed from molten rock inside the earth rises upwards, it pushes the rocky plate already formed above it upwards. As the molten rock cools down slowly inside the earth, rocky plates are formed.
 When the rocky plates are rising, the molten rock which gets trapped in between these plates pierces the weaker upper layer when pressure increases and explodes and erupts as a volcano.
Such rising rocky plates bring up the diamonds which are formed deep inside the earth, above the surface of the earth. Similarly, the rising rocky plates are responsible for the formation of hot water springs, white smoke and muddy springs.
Diamonds are found on all the seven continents. They are mostly found in the central part of the continents called craton which is the oldest rocky area. *13. There are more than twenty cratons all over the earth. These cratons have been on land for a very long period of time.
Moreover for the diamonds to form and rise to the surface, a long duration of stability is needed. So, continents are structures which are stable and do not move here and there.
Moreover, for a depth of about 40 kilometers, only rocky plates are seen. Below lies the molten rock material called “Moho” and this is found in layers. Through various researches conducted with the waves created by earth tremor, this has been found out. In many places on the earth, this molten rock material called “Moho” has pierced the crust and has come out to the surface. To be specific, at Newfoundland island a “Moho” mountain has been formed. Similarly in Ice age, the molten rock material called “Moho” has come out as rocks. As the molten rock material which is at 600 kilometers deep has come out at places like North America , we can say that islands and continents are immovable.

The continent of Europe is continuously rising.
On all the continents found on earth, caves are seen on the sea shore. To be specific, surrounding the continent Europe , there are numerous sea caves. *14. These sea caves are formed due to the erosion caused by the sea. The roofs of caves thus formed are 20 or 30 feet above sea level.
Small ships can travel through most of the caves. How could have the roofs of caves which were formed due to the erosion by the sea have gone up to such a height?
Many sea caves are found on the sea shore many hundreds of feet away from the sea and many feet high from the sea level. Many sea caves are also found dry without water.
All these caves, the islands on which they are situated, the land surfaces and the continents show us clearly that the land is continuously rising from the sea. They say that when two land surfaces collide with each other, mountain ranges are formed. But, this (in the picture) mountain region shows clearly that it did not form by the collision of a land.

The sea level is different in different places.
 Similarly when the sea level surrounding Europe was monitored by satellite for a long period, it has been found out that the sea level is rising at different rates in different places. How the same sea level can be low at a particular place and rise at other places? The sea level is measured in comparison with the nearby land level. That is, the waves that are got back from the satellite are sent back on the land and the sea at the same time.
When these waves collide with the land and the sea bed and return, from the difference in speed with which they return helps us to calculate the level of the water in the sea. With the help of the details thus collected and compared, it has been found out that the sea level is different at different places surrounding the continent of Europe .*15.
Though it has been said that the reason for this is that the land in that area is higher, researchers are of a different opinion. They call this rise as Glacial Isostatic Adjustment. They say that, previously layers of snow was exerting a pressure on Europe and that, now these have melted and so the land is rising further . Specifically they say, Scotland , which is on the northern side of Europe is rising fast and is gaining more height than South England .
But, this is not a proper explanation. The fossils of the arthropod, Trilobite are found in Dudley, situated in central England . So, including England the whole of Europe has risen from the seabed 500 million years ago and is still rising. Iceland surfaced only 12 thousand years ago. But the fossils of Trilobite assure that 500 million years ago the continent of Europe had started rising and is still continuing to rise.

Islands are continuously rising.
In the same way, near the islands which are situated in the sea near Australia also the level of the sea has been found to vary in different places. *16. The main reason for the difference in sea level is that these islands are rising in different speeds.
In the small streak like Andaman Island in the Indian Ocean , many sea caves are found. Below these caves, tourists go on boat rides. The sea caves’ upper curve is in such a height. The reason for the curvature of the caves that were formed due to erosion by the sea to be found at such a height is that Andaman Island is rising from the seashore. It is not possible for the Indian Ocean which is surrounding the Andaman Island to suddenly decrease. There is one more proof to show that Andaman Island is rising: the snake / basalt rocks which are formed under the sea are found on Andaman Island .
Only due to the rising of Andaman Island from the sea bed, earthquakes often occur there. The rising rocky plate’s edges below the island rub up and down against the non-rising neighboring earth plates which results in earthquakes.
Therefore, the reason for the earthquakes is only the rising of the land and for the land slides also only the rising of the land is responsible.
When a part of the land rises, below the surrounding land areas an open space is created. When it rains, the rain water fills up this space which makes the soil marshy and results in land slides.

The caves which are found on the edge of the seashore become caves on mountains when the land rises.
In the mountainous region of Srilanka, many spherical caves have formed. The spherical caves show us clearly that while Srilanka was rising, these caves were formed due to the erosion by the surrounding sea water. The most important thing to be noted here is that the lands surrounding these caves have only encountered severe land slides which are clearly shown by the map. So, when the land and mountains rise, land slides result.

Isle of the Dead is continuously rising.
There is another very clear proof to show that the islands are rising. On the world map, near Antarctica Ross Sea is marked. Captain Sir. James Clark Ross went on an expedition from Britain to Antarctica in two ships during 1841 and it is named after him.
After his expedition in Antarctica, Captain Ross on his way to Britain rested for a while in Tasmania Island which is near Australia . Along with Thomas Lempriere, a researcher carved a 20 centimeter length benchmark of a rising sun on a rock on the sea shore to mark the average level of the sea and to signify that they were conducting a research on the level of the sea water. *17. As they did not want anyone to erase it, they chose the Isle of the Dead which was a deserted spot.
This island is near Tasmania . As this island was used to bury only dead people, it was called Isle of the Dead. They chose a rock where there was not much of waves and carved a straight line on which they drew like the rays of the sun diverging from it. This symbol was carved on the 1st of July in the year 1841. To be precise, 160 years ago from this day the symbol was carved. Today, the level of the sea is 30 centimeters lower than the symbol. Hence, this incident also makes it clear that the land is rising.

During the Ice age also the sea level has risen.
Even in Ice age, it has come to our notice that there have been a lot of differences in the sea level within a short period of time.. This too has surprised the scientists. Due to change in the temperatures in the polar areas, the snow layers keep melting and when there is snow fall again, the snow layers keep forming again which produce differences in the level of the sea.Usually, this rise and fall will be 100 feet in one lakh of years.
Scientists are of the opinion that this change in the level of the sea would have taken place in one lakh of years due to the changes that occurred on the orbit on which the earth revolves around the sun. Other than that, the scientists were under the impression that twelve thousand years ago the level of the sea in Ice age was stable.
When this was the prevailing condition, two scientists of the Columbia University, William Thomson and Steven L Goldstein have discovered a new method in which, by studying the amount of radio active uranium present in the fossils of the sea moss deposited on the land, we can find out accurately how the level of the sea had been thousands of years ago. *18
On the basis of this when they conducted a research; it had been found that, in Ice age also huge changes have occurred in the sea level. There had been changes in about 30 meters height. This is an unexpected and surprising happening. This event has taken place between 3000 to 9000 years.
In Ice age where the temperature does not fluctuate, what is the reason for the variation in sea level?
this indicate that the so called ice age does not happened.

The continent, Antarctica is continuously rising.
In March 2002, on the eastern corner, peninsular area, in the continent of Antarctica situated at the South Pole, the ice sheets which form on the land and extend on the sea suddenly broke into hundreds of pieces and were thrown in all directions. This incident surprised and stunned the scientists. Geologist Eugene Dumac of the Michigan University stated “This is a new event which has never happened before”..*19. David Wagon, a research scholar of the British Antarctic Research center has stated, “It is difficult to believe that 500 billion ton of glacier had disintegrated in thirty five days.”
Generally, due to the changes in temperature the layers of snow and ice at the poles melt very slowly into water and mix with the sea.
To discuss the reason for the sudden breaking of the glacier on 4th and 5th April 2002 , more than 60 scientists from 12 countries assembled in Hamilton College and discussed. It was announced that, the defective formation of the glacier was only responsible for its disintegration.
Why should the formation of the glacier suddenly disintegrate?
The layers of ice are spread out continuously on the land as well as the sea. The truth is when the peninsular area of Antarctica rose upwards, the formation was affected and it broke into pieces. This part of Antarctica is under the British and hence the arthropod Trilobite’s fossils have been found. So the reason for the sudden breakage is that this particular continent is rising.
Similarly in Greenland at North Pole, sheets of ice covering the island had long cracks and these started sliding faster than before.
In the North Pole area near the border of Ellesmere Island is an ice shelf called Ward Hunt on which many cracks have formed during 2002. *20.
Appearance of cracks on the ice shelves and these cracks breaking them, which had been silent for the past three thousand years, is only due to the difference in the rate of rising of the land surface and damaging the structure of the ice shelves.
A European research scholar, Dr,remcocharu after conducting a research through the satellite, ERS-1 has stated that, the level of the Arctic Ocean in the North Pole region is reduced by 2.17 millimeters starting from1995 – 2003. According to this theory, temperature rise is not the reason for the cracking and breaking of the ice shelves. It is because; the increase in the temperature would have resulted in the melting of ice and increased the ocean level. But, the level has decreased! So, it becomes clear that the rising of the islands is responsible for the cracking of the ice shelves and the lowering in the level of the ocean.

The Continent of South America is continuously rising.
Similar to the finding of fossils in the deserts, huge deposits of salt is also found.
The largest salt deposit of the world has been discovered in the desert region of Uyuni which is situated on the south western side of Bolivia in South America . This salt desert is of an area of 4600 square miles. Ten billion tons (1 billion = 100 crores) of salt is found here. This place is situated 11 thousand feet high from sea level. When seen from there only salt is seen in all directions as far as the eye could see and so this area appears as a white region.

Similarly in Kavir desert in the Plateau of Iran, Death Valley in the central part of North America, Atacama Desert in South America, Great Victoria Desert in central Australia , Kalahari Desert and in Botswana in South Africa and Sahara Desert in North Africa , large deposits of salt are found. How could have salt of such magnitude be formed in deserts?
 Already the fossils of sea organisms have been unearthed in deserts. So it is confirmed that all these deserts had been under the sea once upon a time and later have surfaced above from below the sea. When the sandy area rose above the sea level, some areas were lower and the sea water which stagnated in due course got evaporated and the large deposits of salt were formed.

The Continent of Australia is continuously rising
Robert backer is a research scholar in the New England University of Australia .
Every Sunday to take rest, he used to visit the Sydney Harbor where he once played and enjoyed with his friends when he was young.
Incidentally one day, on the rocks he saw many nests made of lime and those resembled the nests of wasps. These nests were the nests of tubeworms which live in the sea. But, seeing it at such a height was something abnormal. The nests were about 7 feet above sea level where much erosion had not occurred. 
These tubeworms need to be in water for at least six hours for survival. Under these circumstances, what could be the reason for the nests being built 7 feet above sea water level?
Backer was able to arrive at only one explanation. That is, the sea level in Sydney harbor has decreased by seven feet. And this must have taken place recently. If it had happened long before, the nests would have been eroded to a greater extent.
Immediately he conveyed the information to Professor Peter flood and Dr. Bob Haworth and they decided to conduct an elaborate research.
Subsequently, they went to the island New Caledonia which is 600 miles away from Australia and searched for the nests of the tubeworms. Curiously, there also they found the tubeworms’ nests at a height where the sea waves could not touch them.
Next, in island of Madagascar found near Africa in the Indian Ocean, in South Corona on the border of North American sea shore, and in South America on the sea shore of Brazil, they found the insects’ nests at a height above the sea level and based on their findings of 8 years, they finally disclosed that the sea level has gone down. *21. But, they did not reveal why it has dropped. Where did all the sea water go? What happened to it? There was no explanation for these. It is more than three billion years since the seas were formed. It is not possible for the sea to reduce its level throughout the world. So, only the continents have risen. This is the reason for the insects’ nests seen at a height above the sea level.

The mystery of non sinking islands.
I will disclose another important matter. In the year 1990, environmental scientists released a very important report. In that they had stated that the atmosphere is heated too much and so the glaciers are melting and due to this action, within ten years the sea level will rise. They warned that when this happens, all the nine tiny islands like Tuvalu and Vanuatu will get submerged in the sea. Immediately, the President of Tuvalu which is in the Pacific Ocean wrote a letter to the president of New Zealand . He had stated that as per the calculations of the environmentalists, their island will get submerged in ten years time and in case such an event takes place, shelter has to be provided on compassionate grounds to the inhabitants of the island as environmental refugees.
Ten years passed but, no island sank! At the same time, the scientists of NASA had found out through research that in the polar region, ice has melted and fifty billion tons of water had mixed with the sea. Though enormous amount of water flowed into the sea why the islands did not sink? Interestingly, when the level of sea was checked near the islands, the sea level was found to be two and a half inches lower than before. This incident clearly shows us that the islands are rising.

Is Pacific Ocean floor moving? Research Scholars’ Opinion.
As they say that the continents are moving, they also say that the seabed is also moving. To support this opinion, they are showing the structure of the volcanic islands like Hawaii , Kauai and Oahu as proof.
That is, the hot molten rock material from the core of the earth pierces the Pacific sea bed and comes to the surface. At the same time, the Pacific sea bed moves in North West direction. It was said that due to this movement the Hawaiian Islands appeared in a row in the North West . *22.
Aleutian trench.
Along the Hawaiian Ridge, 1400 miles away from Hawaii , an island called Midway is situated. Starting from there, the line of volcanic islands deviates from northwest direction and faces north. The aerial view of this curve appears like the curved leg of a dog and so this curved region is called “Aleutian trench.
 It is said that, 47 million years ago the Pacific plate was moving towards north and suddenly it changed the direction and started moving in north westerly direction. But till this day, nobody has given any acceptable explanation as to why the Pacific plate suddenly changed the direction of its movement. In fact, the continents of Asia, Australia , North America and South America are continuously rising from the earth. The truth is, due to this upward movement, a large crack has formed on the Pacific seabed and the molten rock material is oozing out and this has resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian volcanic ridge.
Is it due to the seabed moving on a hot center, that these volcanic ridges and Island chains came into existence? To prove this, the rock found on the island which appeared first should have the oldest rock formation and the rocks of Hawaii island which was formed later should have the newest rock formation is normally expected. But the research conducted on Easter islands did not show any change in age.
Moreover, when the direction of the other underwater mountain ranges is taken into consideration, it seems that the Pacific seabed should be moving in more than two directions. This is not possible. Hence, stating that similar to the movements of the continents, the sea bed is also moving is a wrong theory.
Is the ocean bed of Atlantic Ocean expanding? Opinion of research scholars
Another explanation is give to substantiate that continents are moving. They quote the S - shaped Mid Atlantic Ridge which is an 80,000 miles long mountain range as a proof for this.
In this region, the molten rock comes out and produces new rocky plates. As the new rocky plate forms on the upper region, it dashes against the existing adjacent rocky plates and pushes them; and due to this, the Atlantic Ocean bed expands and expands on both sides. They continue to say that this causes the continents of America and Australia to move in the opposite directions.
A question arose: if so, the diameter of the earth should increase. The answer given was, such newly formed rocky plates went through the Trenches found in the deeper part of the Pacific Ocean into the earth and were destroyed. (But how could the rocky plate of lesser density go inside the molten rock which is of higher density? There is no answer for this).
Another research scholar asked that if it was so, was the Pacific Ocean shrinking? No satisfactory answer has been given for this question till now.
According to this concept, new rocky plates of 80,000 mile length are formed. But the lengths of the Trenches found in the deeper part of the Pacific Ocean into which these rocky plates go and get destroyed are only 35,000 miles long! Apart from this, the mountain and mountain ranges formed due to the collision of the rocky plates are only 9,000 miles. According to this theory, among the rocky plates formed, only half gets destroyed. Hence, this view was also discarded as it could not be accepted.
The basis for the theory that, the Atlantic Ocean floor is expanding has also been found incorrect. That is, the central portion where the new rocky plates are formed, the age of the rocks should be much lesser and as they move towards the continents, the age of the rocks should be more. But, where the new rocky plates are formed itself, there are submarine mountains which have rocks as old as billions of years. So this concept is also not correct.

Is it true that continents are moving? Opinion of Research scholars.
They say that the continents that are found on the surface of the earth are moving by floating on the Asthenosphere which consists of molten rock like ships cut through water and sail. By checking the waves caused due to tremors, it has been found out that the Asthenosphere of molten rock is not found continuously below the continents and the sea. So, to say that the continents are moving is similar to saying that without the track trains are moving and without water ships are sailing on the land.
 But, showing that when the sea shores of the continents of Africa and America are joined together, they match well and it is stated that all the continents were together before. Is it true? More than 30 experts tried to join the edges of all the continents with the help of the computer but failed miserably.
When the western sea shore border was joined to the eastern seashore of the continent America , it did not fit correctly. When Mexico in the central portion was cut and pasted, its edges fitted correctly. But, 2 billion year old rocks are found in Mexico . So Mexico region cannot be left out. Hence, stating that the edges of continents fit correctly is incorrect. The continents had never been together at any point of time.
The most important point is that the continents are of different heights. The highest continent among all continents is Antarctica . Its height is approximately 5800 feet. The next in the line is Asia which is of 3200 feet high. The continent which is of the least height is Australia . Its height is approximately 300 feet above sea level. Hence, all the continents could never have been together.

Dinosaurs prove that the continents did not move and the fossils of Trilobites show that the continents are rising in height.
South America and Africa are separated by the Atlantic Ocean . But, in both these continents the bones of the giant sized lizard, Mesosaurs which is a variety of dinosaurs are found.
 Based on this, Albert Wagner, a meteorological researcher raised a question as to how the same type of animal could be found in different continents when they are separated by oceans and concluded that previously they should have been one single continent. But, at that time this idea was vehemently opposed.
In the Bering Strait which separates North America from Russia ’s Siberia , the land rose first and served as a bridge of land for all animals like woolly mammoth, wild buffaloes, lions, bears rabbits and cave men.
To support this theory, in Siberia, in the Yana river valley, the Stone Age tools used by man and numerous bones of animals were found. * 23.
The bones of the dinosaur, Sauropods which lived much before this period were also found in numerous quantities.
Like this land bridge which is known as Beringia there should have been many land bridges between continents, through which the dinosaurs would have moved and spread. Researchers said that other than this it was not possible for the continents to move.
Wagner refused to believe the concept about land bridges but argued that continents are moving.
200 million years ago, a huge continent named Pangaea got divided in to two continents called Laurasia and Gondwana.
150 million years ago the continent Gondwana broke in to many pieces and formed South America, Africa, Australia and India .
Among this, India moved in a north eastern direction, crossed the equator 45 million years ago and collided with the continent Asia . On account of this, the Himalayas were formed. Wagner also said that this was cause for the earthquakes to occur there.
The dinosaurs which were the proof for Wagner‘s concept of moving continents have today become the opposing features.
The recently unearthed skull of dinosaur at the riverside of Narmadha, when studied has been found to have existed 95 million years ago and its close relatives have been living in South America and Africa .
Professor Paul Sereno of the University of Chicago has said, “We cannot get the closely related species without transport”. *24.
The problem here is that according to Pangaea’s concept, all these continents got separated 150 million years ago and have been isolated by the seas and oceans. So, the question now is that, how a species which evolved after that period spread to other continents.

Is the Pangaea concept true?
According to the Pangaea concept, India was an island continent 65 million years ago. Dinosaurs which evolved during that period and lived in the other parts of the world had no opportunity to enter India . It was because, India was surrounded by sea. But, the skeletons of dinosaurs have been found in many parts of India . Taking this into consideration, and according to the Pangaea concept that continents keep moving, India had never been an island continent. It is proved that as at present; it had joined Asia . Only if it had happened, the dinosaurs could have come into India.
Now Wagner‘s followers have explained that, the continent Gondwana should have got separated at a later stage about 100 million years ago and even after that there should have been many temporary land bridges between continents for a period of time, through which the dinosaurs would have traveled to and fro.
But, the full opposing factor in this case is the dinosaur, Sauropods which evolved 65 million years ago. This dinosaur which lived in many parts of India and its close relatives had been living in South America and Madagascar Island in Africa .
According to the Pangaea concept, India was a separate island continent which had detached it self from Africa and moved thousands of miles and was near the equator. It had not yet come near the continent of Asia . There had been sea in between India and Asia . How could the dinosaurs, Sauropods have reached India ?
Professor Jeffery Wilson of the University of Michigan has said, “The statement that India had moved has not been substantiated with direction and time.
But, Paleontologists have said that, fifty million years ago that is even before Mount Everest came into being Sauropods dinosaurs had entered India from the North. According to this theory, it is proved that India had always been part of the continent, Asia .
Dinosaurs have lived in Antarctica and Australia . Similar to the land bridge which was formed in Bering Strait area due to the rising of the land which made the sea recede and paved way for animals to move from one place to another, there is a possibility that, there could have been many land bridges between continents through which the dinosaurs could have migrated to various places. Hence, the continents did not move; it is only the animals which moved from one place to another. When the land rises, the sea recedes in that area and using the land that is visible, the animals move from one continent to another.
If continents do not move, how do earthquakes occur? Earthquakes occur only due to the rising of the land from below the sea above sea level. The fossils of sea animals that are found on thousands of feet high mountains including the Everest are the best examples for this.

the formation of grand canyon.
The Grand Canyon is a structure, formed by layers of rocky plates is one of the wonders of the world and was formed below the sea and has risen up.
In the beginning when the earth was a planet made of molten rock, the upper layers slowly cooled and in different layers sedimentary rocks were formed.
During very cold season, pipes that bring drinking water burst due to the freezing of the water inside them. It is because when water freezes, it expands and takes up more space.
In the same way when the molten rock cools, its thickness increases. Moreover, as the density of the rocks is lesser than the molten rock, they rise upwards.
At the same time, they expand and occupy more area. The Grand Canyon is formed by such sedimentary rocks which rose up and expanded.. Below the sea at 3000 meters depth and in the center of the sea also, structures like the Grand Canyon are found.
The Grand Canyon in North America has in it the fossils of Trilobite, sea shells and snails, which shows us that this land surface of the Grand Canyon has risen from below the sea.
When a part of the land rises, there are land slides in the surrounding areas in which the living things of the sea get buried. Later, when these portions of the land rise above the sea level, due to land slides the fossils get exposed.

Tremors on the Moon
One more proof for stating that earth quakes occur due to the rising of the land are the tremors that occur on the moon.
There are no continents on the moon. But, there are mountains, elevations and craters on the moon. Moreover moon quakes occur on the moon. Stating that the movement of the land only causes quakes is incorrect, because there are no continents on the moon. Hence, the rising of the land is the primary cause for earthquakes to occur.
Mountains formed by sedimentary rocks. Valleys and rocks are found on the planet, Mars too. But, there is no water in Mars. The truth that we understand from this is that, these sedimentary rocks are not formed by deposits of sediments. Instead, they have been formed by the gradual cooling of the molten material inside the earth and rise upwards.

Moreover, Cape Town which is in the southern end of South Africa , has on its flat
Mountains along the sea shore, numerous fossils of sea animals. All over the world, there are around 30 thousand mountains below the sea. Below the Pacific Ocean , there are many flat surfaced mountains called Guyatts. So, the mountains and their surrounding land areas have only risen above the surface of the sea. Mountains are not formed due to the collision of two land areas.

Below the sea also there are many flat surfaced mountains. These are called Guyatts. The important thing is that, below the Pacific Ocean , there are thousands of Guyatts.. So, when the molten rock gradually cools and hardens inside the earth, rocky plates are formed in different layers which rise upwards and form the flat surfaced mountains below the sea. Later when the surrounding land also rose upwards as continents, flat surfaced mountains are found above the land too.
Tibet plateau challenges the view that continents are moving
The upper part of the earth is formed by layers of rocks. On an average, these rocks are of 35 kilo meters height. These rocky plates keep moving. The broad belief is that, while moving, if they rub against each other, earthquakes occur and if two plates directly collide with each other mountains are formed.
The best proof shown by most of the researchers for this is that, India had moved northwest and collided with Asia, which resulted in the formation of the Himalayas and Tibet plateau. But, below Tibet plateau for about 70 kilo meters, there are many layers of rock.
When two bread slices are made to collide with each other, though the place where they are joined together rises up, the height of the bread slices will remain the same and does not change. But the height of the rocky plates found below the Tibet plateau is twice the height of the rocky plates found in other areas.
The height of the Tibet   the earth and the rocky plates below the water are the same. So the molten rock inside the earth has only cooled and formed rocky plates which have risen above the sea level. And so, it proves that, the collision of two rocky plates has not formed Tibet plateau.
Another proof for Tibet rising from below the sea is the unearthing of the bones of a dolphin shaped lizard called Ichthyosaurus which lived in the sea 100 million years ago at a place known as Dingiri at Tibet . This place is 16 thousand feet above sea level.